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Tarballs are compressed files commonly found in GNU/Linux. The Tar (Tape Archive) utility gathers one or more files into a single .tar file. GZip then compresses the .tar file into a .tar.gz/.tgz file.
This was a common way to distribute source code before git cloning came along.
Creating a Tarball
$ cd /place/where/files/are $ tar -czf /wherever/tarball.tar.gz file1 file2 dir1 dir2
Extracting a Tarball
$ cd /place/to/extract/files/to $ tar -zxf /wherever/tarball.tar.gz