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HAM Radio

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(See also: Software-Defined Radio)

Ham Radio is an old hobby that has origins as far back as the late 1800's. It was formalized as a hobby in the early 20th century. It is an over-regulated piece of shit, but what isn't now a days.

Ham Radio

Testing In The US

Element 2 Technician 35 out of 426 questions from this pool

Frequencies 80m 40m 15m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Element 3 General 35 out of 462 questions from this pool

Frequencies 2200m 630m 160m 80m 60m 40m 30m 20m 17m
15m 12m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Element 4 Amateur Extra 50 out of 712 questions from this pool

Frequencies 2200m 630m 160m 80m 60m 40m 30m 20m 17m
15m 12m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Find Testing Locations In The US

Get Your FCC Registration Number

You will need either an FCC Registration or Social Security number in order to take the exam. It is not necessary to register beforehand with the FCC, but it will speed things along if you bring the paperwork.

FCC License Data Search

For a fee of $15 USD you may take one or all three tests in one sitting at no additional charge. If you fail a test, you may spend an additional $15 USD to retake it. Your license is good for 10 years with a 2 year grace period to retest after expiration. You are no longer required to know Morse code for any of these tests.

FCC Part 97 The US Amateur Rulebook

Maths You Should Know

Ohm's Law

Solve For Watts Amp2 x Ohm Volt2 / Ohm Volt x Amp
Solve For Volts Amp x Ohm √Watt x Ohm Watt / Amp
Solve For Amps Volt / Ohm Watt / Volt √Watt / Ohm
Solve For Ohms Volt2 / Watt Volt / Amp Watt / Amp2

Speed of Light Is a Constant 299,792,458 Meters Per Second

Wavelength is represented in Meters as λ

Frequency is represented in Mega Hertz as f

Speed of Light c (300MM) / Frequency f (MHz) = Wavelength λ (Meters)

This is the basic formula to find full wavelength in meters for a given frequency.

Antennas

Loop Antennas are full wavelength with one element.

c/f=λ Element Length

Dipoles are half wave with two elements.

c/f/2 = λ/2 Element Lengths

Ground Planes must be at least quarter wave with one vertical and four radial elements.

c/f/4 = λ Vertical Element Length

c/f/4 = λ Radial Element Lengths

3 Element Yagi Yagis are directional antennas consisting of a boom with reflector, driven, and director elements.

c/f = λ*.495 = Reflector Element Length

c/f = λ*.125 = Boom Separation Length

c/f = λ*.473 = Driven Element Length

c/f = λ*.125 = Boom Separation Length

c/f = λ*.440 = Director Element Length

Polarization

Ionosphere

Electrical Components

ITU Radio Bands

VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF
3 to 30 kHz 30 to 300 kHz 300 to 3 MHz 3 to 30 MHz 30 to 300 MHz 300 to 3 GHz 3 to 30 GHz

Feedline

RG6 is common and cheap, but higher resistance at 75 Ohms. You should not use this.

RG58 is cheap, 50 Ohms, and perfectly acceptable for HF.

RG8X is slightly more expensive than RG58, but lower loss.

RG213 is double the price of RG58 and RG8X, but lower attenuation at higher frequencies.

RG8U is almost identical to RG213 in price and attenuation, but has lower loss per 100ft.

LMR400 is exceptional at higher frequencies as well as low. If your software radio can do 1GHz-6GHz, this is what you get.

Transceiver Type

Q Code

A Q Code is a shorthand for Ham Radio. It was formalized in the Morse Code days.

These are the standardized, modern Q Codes recognized internationally.

Question ? Answer or Advice
QAB May I have clearance (for ...) from ... (place) to ... (place) at flight level/altitude ... ? You are cleared (or ... is cleared) by ... from ... (place) to ... (place) at flight level/altitude ...
QAF Will you advise me when you are (were) at (over) ... (place)? I am (was) at (over) ... (place) (at ... hours) at flight level/altitude ...
QAG Arrange your flight in order to arrive over ... (place) at ... hours.

or
I am arranging my flight in order to arrive over ... (place) at ... hours.

QAH What is your height above ... (datum)? I am at .... flight level/altitude ...

or
Arrange your flight so as to reach flight level/altitude ... at ... (hours or place).

QAI What is the essential traffic respecting my aircraft? The essential traffic respecting your aircraft is ...
QAK Is there any risk of collision? There is risk of collision.
QAL Are you going to land at ... (place)?

or
Has aircraft ... landed at ... (place)?

I am going to land at ... (place).

or
(You may) land at ... (place).
or
Aircraft ... landed at ... (place).

QAM What is the latest available meteorological observation for ... (place)? Meteorological observation made at ... (place) at ... hours was as follows ...

Note.- The information may be given in Q Code form or the METAR form.

QAN What is the surface wind direction and speed at ... (place)? The surface wind direction and speed at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (direction) ... (speed).
QAO What is the wind direction in degrees TRUE and speed at ... (position or zone/s) at each of the ... (figures) ... (units) levels above ... (datum)? The wind direction and speed at (position or zone/s) at flight level/altitude ... is:
... (vertical distance) ... degrees TRUE ... (speed).
QAP Shall I listen for you (or for ...) on ... kHz (... MHz)? Listen for me (or for ...) on ... kHz (... MHz).
QAQ Am I near a prohibited, restricted or danger area?

or
Am I near area ... (identification of area)?

You are ...
1) near
2) flying within area ... (identification of area).
QAR May I stop listening on the watch frequency for ... minutes? You may stop listening on the watch frequency for ... minutes.
QAU Where may I jettison fuel? I am about to jettison fuel.

or
Jettison fuel in ... (area).

QAW I am about to carry out overshoot procedure.
QAY Will you advise me when you pass (passed) ... (place) bearing 090 (270) degrees relative to your heading? I passed ... (place) bearing ... degrees relative to my heading at ... hours.
QAZ Are you experiencing communication difficulties through flying in a storm? I am experiencing communication difficulties through flying in a storm.
QBA What is the horizontal visibility at ... (place)? The horizontal visibility at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (distance figures and units).
QBB What is the amount, type and height above official aerodrome elevation of the base of the cloud [at ... (place)]? The amount, type and height above official aerodrome elevation of the base of the cloud at ... (place) at ... hours is:
... eights (... type) at ... (figures and units) height above official aerodrome elevation.
QBC Report meteorological conditions as observed from your aircraft [at ... (position or zone)] [(at ... hours)]. The meteorological conditions as observed from my aircraft at ... (position or zone) at ... hours at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum) are ...
Note.-The answer is required in the format of an AIREP message.
QBD How much fuel have you remaining (expressed as hours and/or minutes of consumption)? My fuel endurance is ... (hours and/or minutes).
QBE I am about to wind in my aerial.
QBF Are you flying in cloud? I am flying in cloud at ... flight level/altitude ... [and I am ascending (descending) to flight level/altitude ...].
QBG Are you flying above cloud? I am flying above cloud and at flight level/altitude ...

or
Maintain a vertical distance of ... (figures and units) above clouds, smoke, haze or fog levels.

QBH Are you flying below cloud? I am flying below cloud and at flight level/altitude ...

or
Maintain a vertical distance of ... (figures and units) below cloud.

QBI Is flight under IFR compulsory at ... (place) [or from ... to ... (place)]? Flight under IFR is compulsory at ... (place) [or from ... to ... (place)].
QBJ What is the amount, type and height above ... (datum) of the top of the cloud [at ... (position or zone)]? At ... hours at ... (position or zone) the top of the cloud is:
amount ... eights (... type) at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QBK Are you flying with no cloud in your vicinity? I am flying with no cloud in my vicinity and at flight level/altitude ...
QBM Has ... sent any messages for me? Here is the message sent by ... at ... hours.
QBN Are you flying between two layers of cloud? I am flying between two layers of cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
QBO What is the nearest aerodrome at which flight under VFR is permissible and which would be suitable for my landing? Flying under VFR is permissible at ... (place) which would be suitable for your landing.
QBP Are you flying in and out of cloud? I am flying in and out of cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
QBS Ascend (or descend) to ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum) before encountering instrument meteorological conditions or if visibility falls below ... (distance figures and units) and advise.
QBT What is the runway visual range at ... (place)? The runway visual range at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (distance figures and units).
QBV Have you reached flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)]? I have reached ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].

or
Report reaching flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].

QBX Have you left ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)]? I have left ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].

or
Report leaving flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].

QBZ Report your flying conditions in relation to clouds. The reply to QBZ ? is given by the appropriate answer form of signals QBF, QBG, QBH, QBK, QBN and QBP.
QCA May I change my flight level/altitude from ... to ... ? You may change your flight level/altitude from ... to ...

or
I am changing my flight level/altitude from ... to ...

QCB Delay is being caused by ...
1) you're transmitting out of turn.
2) your slowness in answering.
3) lack of your reply to my ...
QCE When may I expect approach clearance? Expect approach clearance at ... hours.

or
No delay expected.

QCF Delay indefinite. Expect approach clearance not later than ... hours.
QCH May I taxi to ... (place)? Cleared to taxi to ... (place).
QCI Make a 360-degree turn immediately (turning to the ...).

or
I am making a 360-degree turn immediately (turning to the ...).

QCS My reception on ... frequency has broken down.
QCX What is your full call sign? My full call sign is ...

or
Use your full call sign until further notice.

QCY I am working on a trailing aerial.

or
Work on a trailing aerial.

QDB Have you sent message ... to ... ? I have sent message ... to ...
QDF What is your D-Value at ... (position)?

or
What is the D-Value at ... (place or position) (at ... hours) for the ... millibar level?

My D-Value at ... (position) at ... (figures and units) height above the 1013.2 millibars datum is ... (D-Value figures and units) ... (specify plus or minus).

or
The D-Value at ... (place or position) at ... hours for the ... millibar level is (D-Value figures and units) ... (specify plus or minus).
Note.- When the true altitude (radio altitude) is greater than the pressure altitude PS (Plus) is used and when it is less MS (Minus) is used.

QDL Do you intend to ask me for a series of bearings? I intend to ask you for a series of bearings.
QDM Will you indicate the MAGNETIC heading for me to steer towards you (or ...) with no wind? The MAGNETIC heading for you to steer to reach me (or ...) with no wind was ... degrees (at ... hours).
QDP Will you accept control (or responsibility) of (for) ... now (or at ... hours)? I will accept control (or responsibility) of (for) ... now (or at ... hours).
QDR What is my MAGNETIC bearing from you (or from ...)? Your MAGNETIC bearing from me (or from ...) was ... degrees (at ... hours).
QDT Are you flying in visual meteorological condition? I am flying in visual meteorological condition.

or
You are cleared subject to maintaining own separation and visual meteorological conditions.

QDU Cancelling my IFR flight.

or
IFR flight cancelled at ... (time).

QDV Are you flying in a flight visibility of less than ... (figures and units)? I am flying in a flight visibility of less than ... (figures and units) at flight level/altitude ...
QEA May I cross the runway ahead of me? You may cross the runway ahead of you.
QEB May I turn at the intersection? Taxi as follows at the intersection ...
(straight ahead DRT
turn left LEFT
turn right RITE).
QEC May I make a 180-degree turn and return down the runway? You may make a 180-degree turn and return down the runway.
QED Shall I follow the pilot vehicle? Follow the pilot vehicle.
QEF Have I reached my parking area?

or
Have you reached your parking area?

You have reached your parking area.

or
I have reached my parking area.

QEG May I leave the parking area?

or
Have you left the parking area?

You may leave the parking area.

or
I have left the parking area.

QEH May I move to the holding position for runway number ... ?

or
Have you moved to the holding position for runway number ... ?

Cleared to the holding position for runway number ...

or
I have moved to the holding position for runway number ...

QEJ May I assume position for take-off?

or
Have you assumed position for take-off?

Cleared to hold at take-off position for runway number ...

or
I am assuming take-off position for runway number ... and am holding.

QEK Are you ready for immediate take-off? I am ready for immediate take-off.
QEL May I take-off (and make a ... hand turn after take-off)? You are cleared to take-off (turn as follows after take-off ...).
QEM What is the condition of the landing surface at ... (place)? The condition of the landing surface at ... (place) is ...

Note.- The information is given by sending appropriate NOTAM Code groups.

QEN Shall I hold my position? Hold your position
QEO Shall I clear the runway (or landing area)?

or
Have you cleared the runway (or landing area)?

Clear the runway (or landing area).

or
I have cleared the runway (or landing area).

QES Is a right-hand circuit in force at ... (place)? A right-hand circuit is in force at ... (place).
QFA What is the meteorological forecast for ... (flight, route, section of route or zone) for the period ... hours until ... hours? The meteorological forecast for ... (flight, route, section of route or zone) for the period ... hours until ... hours is ...
QFB The ...
1) approach
2) runway
3) approach and runway
lights are out of order.
QFC What is the amount, the type and the height above ... (datum) of the base of the cloud at ... (place, position or zone)? At ... (place, position or zone) the base of the cloud is ... eighths ... type at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QFD 1) Is the ... visual beacon [at ... (place)] in operation?
2) Will you switch on the ... visual beacon [at ... (place)]?
3) Will you extinguish the aerodrome visual beacon [at ... (place)] until I have landed?
1) The ... visual beacon [at ... (place)] is in operation
2) I will extinguish the aerodrome visual beacon [at ... (place)] until your landing is completed.
QFE What should I set on the subscale of my altimeter so that the instrument would indicate its height above the reference elevation being used? If you set the subscale of your altimeter to read ... millibars, the instrument would indicate its height above aerodrome elevation (above threshold, runway number ...).
QFF [At ... (place)] what is the present atmospheric pressure converted to mean sea level in accordance with meteorological practice? At ... (place) the atmospheric pressure converted to mean sea level in accordance with meteorological practice is (or was determined at ... hours to be) ... millibars.
QFG Am I overhead? You are overhead.
QFH May I descend below the clouds? You may descend below the clouds.
QFI Are the aerodrome lights lit? The aerodrome lights are lit.

or
Please light the aerodrome lights.

QFL Will you send up pyrotechnical lights? I will send up pyrotechnical lights.
QFM What flight level/altitude ...
1) should I maintain?
2) are you maintaining?
3) do you intend cruising at?
...

1) Maintain (or fly at) flight level/altitude ...
2) I am maintaining flight level/altitude ...
3) I intend cruising at flight level/altitude ...

QFO May I land immediately? You may land immediately.
QFP Will you give me the latest information concerning ... facility [at ... (place)]? The latest information concerning ... facility [at ... (place)] is as follows ...

Note.- The information is given by sending appropriate NOTAM Code groups.

QFQ Are the approach and runway lights lit? The approach and runway lights are lit.

or
Please light the approach and runway lights.

QFR Does my landing gear appear damaged? Your landing gear appears damaged.
QFS Is the radio facility at ... (place) in operation? The radio facility at ... (place) is in operation (or will be in operation in ... hours).

or
Please have the ... radio facility at ... (place) put in operation.

QFT Between what heights above ... (datum) has ice formation been observed [at ... (position or zone)]? Ice formation has been observed at ... (position or zone) in the type of ... and with an accretion rate of ... between ... (figures and units) and ... (figures and units) heights above ... (datum).
QFU What is the magnetic direction (or number) of the runway to be used? The magnetic direction (or number) of the runway to be used is ...

Note.- The runway number is indicated by a two-figure group and the magnetic direction by a three-figure group.

QFV Are the floodlights switched on? The floodlights are switched on.

or
Please switch on the floodlights.

QFW What is the length of the runway in use in ... (units)? The length of runway ... now in use is ... (figures and units).
QFX I am working (or am going to work) on a fixed aerial.

or
Work on a fixed aerial.

QFY Please report the present meteorological landing conditions [at ... (place)]. The present meteorological landing conditions at ... (place) are ...
Note.- When given in Q Code the information is sent in the following sequence: QAN, QBA, QNY, QBB, QNH and/or QFE and, if necessary, QMU, QNT, QBJ.
QFZ What is the aerodrome meteorological forecast for ... (place) for the period ... hours until ... hours? The aerodrome meteorological forecast for ... (place) for the period ... hours until ... hours is ...
Note.- When given in Q Code the following sequence of Q signal answer (or advice) forms is to be used: QAN, QBA, QNY, QBB and, if necessary, QMU, QNT and QBJ.
QGC There are obstructions to the ... of ... runway ...
QGD Are there on my track any obstructions whose elevation equals or exceeds my altitude? There are obstructions on your track ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QGE What is my distance to your station (or to ...)? Your distance to my station (or to ...) is ... (distance figures and units).
QGH May I land using ... (procedure or facility)? You may land using ... (procedure or facility).
QGK What track should I make good?

or
What track are you making good?

Make good a track from ... (place) on ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).

or
I am making good a track from ... (place) on ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).

QGL May I enter the ... (control area or zone) at ... (place)? You may enter the ... (control area or zone) at ... (place).
QGM Leave the ... (control area or zone).
QGN May I be cleared to land [at ... (place)]? You are cleared to land [at ... (place)].
QGO Landing is prohibited at ... (place).
QGP What is my number for landing? You are number ... to land.
QGQ May I hold at ... (place)? Hold at ... (place) at flight level/altitude ... (datum) and await further clearance.
QGT Fly for ... minutes on a heading what will enable you to maintain a track reciprocal to your present one.
QGU Fly for ... minutes on a magnetic heading of ... degrees.
QGV Do you see me?

or
Can you see the aerodrome?
or
Can you see ... (aircraft)?

I see you at ... (cardinal or quadrantal point of direction).

or
I can see the aerodrome.
or
I can see ... (aircraft).

QGW Does my landing gear appear to be down and in place? Your landing gear appears to be down and in place.
QGZ Hold on ... direction of ... facility.
QHE Will you inform me when you are on ... leg of approach? I am on ...
1) cross-wind leg
2) down-wind leg
3) base leg
4) final leg
... of approach.
QHG May I enter traffic circuit at flight level/altitude ...? Cleared to enter traffic circuit at flight level/altitude ...
QHH Are you making an emergency landing? I am making an emergency landing.

or
Emergency landing being made at ... (place). All aircraft below flight level/altitude ... and within a distance of ... (figures and units) leave ... (place or headings).

QHI Are you (or is ...) ...
1) waterborne?
2) on land?
I am (or ... is) ...
1) waterborne
2) on land

at ... hours.

QHQ May I make a ... approach [at ... (place)]?

or
Are you making a ... approach?

You may make a ... approach [at ... (place)].

or
I am making a ... approach.

QHZ Shall I circle the aerodrome (or go around)? Circle the aerodrome (or go around).
QIC May I establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz (or ... MHz.) now (or at ... hours)? Establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz. (or MHz.) now (or at ...hours).

or
I will establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz (or ... MHz) now (or at ... hours).

QIF What frequency is ... using? ... is using ... kHz (or ... MHz.).
QJA Is my ...
1) tape
2) mark and space
reversed?
Your ...
1) tape
2) mark and space
is reversed.
QJB Will you use ...
1) radio?
2) cable?
3) telegraph?
4) teletypewriter?
5) telephone?
6) receiver?
7) transmitter?
8) reperforator?
I will use ...
1) radio.
2) cable.
3) telegraph.
4) teletypewriter.
5) telephone.
6) receiver.
7) transmitter.
8) reperforator.
QJC Will you check your ...
1) transmitter distributor?
2) auto-head?
3) perforator?
4) reperforator?
5) printer?
6) printer motor?
7) keyboard?
8) antenna system?
I will check my ...
1) transmitter distributor.
2) auto-head.
3) perforator.
4) reperforator.
5) printer.
6) printer motor.
7) keyboard.
8) antenna system.
QJD Am I transmitting ...
1) in letters?
2) in figures?
You are transmitting ...
1) in letters
2) in figures.
QJE Is my frequency shift ...
1) too wide?
2) too narrow?
3) correct?
Your frequency shift is ...
1) too wide.
2) too narrow (by ... cycles).
3) correct.
QJF My signal as checked by monitor ... is satisfactory ...
1) locally.
2) as radiated.
QJG Shall I revert to automatic relay? Revert to automatic relay.
QJH Shall I run ...
1) my test tape?
2) a test sentence?
Run ...
1) your test tape.
2) a test sentence.
QJI Will you transmit a continuous ...
1) mark?
2) space?
I am transmitting a continuous...
1) mark.
2) space.
QJK Are you receiving ...
1) a continuous mark?
2) a continuous space?
3) a mark bias?
4) a space bias?
I am receiving ...
1) a continuous mark.
2) a continuous space.
3) a mark bias.
4) a space bias.
QKC The sea conditions (at ... position) ...
1) permit alighting but not take-off.
2) render alighting extremely hazardous.
QKF May I be relieved (at ... hours)? You may expect to be relieved at ... hours [by ...
1) aircraft ... (identification) (type ...)
2) vessel whose call sign is ... (call sign) {and/or whose name is ... (name)}].
QKG Will relief take place when ... (identification) establishes ...
1) visual,
2) communications,
contact with survivors?
Relief will take place when ... (identification) establishes ...
1) visual,
2) communications,
contact with survivors.
QKH Report details of the parallel sweep (track) search being (or to be) conducted?

or
In the parallel sweep (track) search being (or to be) conducted, what is (are) ...
1) the direction of sweeps,
2) the separation between sweeps,
3) the flight level/altitude ... employed in the search pattern?

The parallel sweep (track) search is being (or to be) conducted ...

1) with direction of sweeps ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).
2) with ... (distance figures and units) separation between sweeps.
3) at flight level/altitude ...

QKN Aircraft plotted (believed to be you) in position ... on track ... degrees at ... hours.
QKO What other units are (or will be) taking part in the operation [... (identification of operation)]? In the operation [... (identification)], the following units are (or will be) taking part ... (name of units).

or
... (name) unit is taking part in operation [... (identification] (with effect from ... hours).

QKP Which pattern of search is being followed? The search pattern is ...
1) parallel sweep.
2) square search.
3) creeping line ahead.
4) track crawl.
5) contour search.
6) combined search by aircraft and ship.
7) ... (specify).
QLB Will you monitor ... station and report regarding range, quality, etc.? I have monitored ... station and report (briefly) as follows ...
QLH Will you use simultaneous keying on ... frequency and ... frequency? I will now key simultaneously on ... frequency and ... frequency.
QLV Is the ... radio facility still required? The ... radio facility is still required.
QMH Shift to transmit and receive on ... kHz (or ... MHz.); if communication is not established within 5 minutes, revert to present frequency.
QMI Report the vertical distribution of cloud [at ... (position or zone)] as observed from your aircraft. The vertical distribution of cloud as observed from my aircraft at ... hours at ... (position or zone) is :

lowest layer observed* ... eights (... type) with base of ... (figures and units) and tops of ... (figures and units)
[*and similarly in sequence for each of the layers observed.]
height above ... (datum).

QMU What is the surface temperature at ... (place) and what is the dew point temperature at that place? The surface temperature at ... (place) at ... hours is ... degrees and the dew point temperature at that time and place is ... degrees.
QMW At ... (position or zone) what is (are) the flight level(s)/altitude(s) ... of the zero Celsius isotherm(s)? At ... (position or zone) the zero Celsius isotherm(s) is (are) at flight level(s)/altitude(s) ...
QMX What is the air temperature [at ... (position or zone)] (at ... hours) at flight level/altitude ...? At ... (position or zone) at ... hours the air temperature is ... (degrees and units) at flight level/altitude ...

Note.- Aircraft reporting QMX information will transmit the temperature figures as corrected for airspeed.

QMZ Have you any amendments to the flight forecast in respect of section of route yet to be traversed? The following amendment(s) should be made to the flight forecast ...

[If no amendments, signal QMZ NIL]

QNE What indication will my altimeter give on landing at ... (place) at ... hours, my sub-scale being set to 1013.2 millibars (29.92 inches)? On landing at ... (place) at ... hours, with your sub-scale being set to 1013.2 millibars (29.92 inches), your altimeter will indicate ... (figures and units).
QNH What should I set on the subscale of my altimeter so that the instrument would indicate its elevation if my aircraft were on the ground at your station? If you set the subscale of your altimeter to read ... millibars, the instrument would indicate its elevation if your aircraft were on the ground at my station at ... hours.

Note.- When the setting is given in hundredths of inch the abbreviation INS is used to identify the units.

QNI Between what heights above ... (datum) has turbulence been observed at ... (position or zone)? Turbulence has been observed at ... (position or zone) with an intensity of ... between ... (figures and units) and ... (figures and units) heights above ... (datum).
QNO I am not equipped to give the information (or provide the facility) requested.
QNR I am approaching my point of no return.
QNT What is the maximum speed of the surface wind at ... (place)? The maximum speed of the surface wind at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (speed figures and units).
QNY What is the present weather and the intensity thereof at ... (place, position or zone)? The present weather and intensity thereof at ... (place, position or zone) at ... hours is ...

Notes:
a) When present weather information is transmitted by a ground station, the abbreviations shall be selected from those specified in Annex 3, paragraph 4.8.2.
b) When present weather information is transmitted by an aircraft, the information shall be selected from items 10 to 12 of the AIREP form.

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Lightning Protection

If your antenna is outdoors, you should take precaution to prevent yourself and your gear from becoming dead. Metal antenna mounts should be grounded using 10 gauge insulated solid core copper wire. Your coax should have a lightning arrestor between the antenna and your equipment. The arrestor should be mounted near the lightning rod it's grounded to. To prevent moisture ingress, the arrestor and coax connectors should be placed in a plastic electrical box. If you have a wire dipole antenna, you should use ceramic insulators at both ends and guy rope to tie between two points.