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Difference between revisions of "Linux (kernel)"

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''This article is about the Linux Kernel. For the system that the kernel runs under in most cases, see [[GNU/Linux]]''
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''This article is about the kernel, Linux. For the system that the kernel runs under in most cases, see [[GNU/Linux]]''
  
Linux is a [[Unix|Unix-like]] kernel. It was created in April 1991 in University of Helsinki, Finland by [[Linus Torvalds]]. It is one of the most prominent examples of free software. It is released under [[GPL|GNU General Public License]] version 2 (GPLv2), with some proprietary binary modules.
+
Linux is a [[Unix|Unix-like]] kernel. It was created in April 1991 in University of Helsinki, Finland by [[Linus Torvalds]]. It is one of the most prominent examples of free software. It is released under [[GPL|GNU General Public License]] version 2 (GPLv2), with some proprietary modules.
  
Being a kernel, Linux sets the foundations for the operating system but lacks the actual userspace programs commonly associated with one. Due to convenience and historical purposes, Linux ships with GNU core utilities in order to provide a fully functional system. Due to this fact, some refer to it as [[GNU/Linux]], which is a term [[Richard Stallman]] [[Interjection|repeatedly tries to enforce]]. However, non-GNU core utilities are available and do ship with a few distros.
+
Being a kernel, Linux sets the foundations for the operating system but lacks the actual userspace programs commonly associated with one. For convenience and historical purposes, Linux is often combined with GNU Coreutils in order to provide a fully functional system. Due to this fact, some refer to it as [[GNU/Linux]], which is a term [[Richard Stallman]] [[Interjection|repeatedly tries to enforce]]. However, non-GNU core utilities are available and do ship with a few distros.
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
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}}
 
}}
  
Soon after, the early adopters of the Linux kernel expanded greatly.
+
Soon after, the early adopters of Linux expanded greatly.
  
 
== Controversy ==
 
== Controversy ==
  
In 1992, with the growing popularity of the Linux kernel, creator of [[MINIX]] Andrew S. Tanenbaum started an argument with Linus Torvalds in the comp.os.minix newsgroup, claiming that how the Linux kernel was created, it was already obsolete. The debate was primarially about microkernels vs monolithic kernels. It is widely considered one of the earliest [[:Category:Shitposting | flame wars]] on the Internet.
+
In 1992, with the growing popularity of Linux, creator of [[MINIX]] Andrew S. Tanenbaum started an argument with Linus Torvalds in the comp.os.minix newsgroup, claiming that when Linux was created, it was already obsolete. The debate was primarily about microkernels vs monolithic kernels. It is widely considered one of the earliest [[:Category:Shitposting | flame wars]] on the Internet.
  
In the late 1990's, [[RMS]] saw that systems that had the Linux kernel as the base were becoming more and more popular. However, these were, in fact, a [[GNU]] system because it utilizes the incomplete GNU OS that was planned to be completed with the [[GNU Hurd|Herd]] kernel. Because of this, he coined the new terms for the system: GNU/Linux (Pronounced GAHNOO slash Linux), or (and lesser used) GNU+Linux (GAHNOO plus Linux). It was advised to not simply say GNU Linux because it would imply that Linux was a creation of the GNU Project.
+
In the late 1990's, [[RMS]] saw that systems that used the kernel, Linux were becoming more and more popular. However, these were, in fact, a [[GNU]] system because it utilizes the incomplete GNU OS that was planned to be completed with the [[GNU Hurd|Hurd]] kernel. Because of this, he coined the new terms for the system: GNU/Linux (Pronounced GAHNOO slash Linux), or (and lesser used) GNU+Linux (GAHNOO plus Linux). It was advised to not simply say GNU Linux because it would imply that Linux was a creation of the GNU Project.
  
Throughout its history (as with most other [[UNIX|UNIX-Like]] systems), the Linux Kernel was challenged for patent. Many people believed that the first beta version of Linux was made from MINIX code, meaning its patent would have been violated and Linus Torvalds would have to cease and desist. While the creator of the MINIX kernel says that he believes Linux has no MINIX code, others believe that it did (or does). In addition, multiple claims were made that the use of Linux (and many other UNIX systems) is a violation of patents owned by SCO Semiconductor Group. who inherited the original patents for the UNIX system.
+
Throughout its history (as with most other [[UNIX|UNIX-Like]] systems), Linux was threatened by software patents. Many people believed that the first beta version of Linux was made from MINIX code, meaning its copyright had been violated and Linus Torvalds would have to cease and desist. While the creator of the MINIX kernel says that he believes Linux has no MINIX code, others believe that it did (or does). In addition, multiple claims were made that the use of GNU/Linux (and many other Unix-like OS's) is a violation of patents held by SCO Semiconductor Group, who inherited the original software patents for UNIX.
  
== Alternative Linux Kernels ==
+
== Alternative Kernels ==
  
Alternative Linux Kernels are variations to, or [[patch]] sets for the [[Linux kernel]].
+
Alternative kernels are variations to, or [[patch]] sets of [[Linux]].
  
 
In addition to certain, well known patchsets such as grsecurity or linux-ck, many distributions have their own kernel and patches that attempt to satisfy requirements for their most common use-cases.
 
In addition to certain, well known patchsets such as grsecurity or linux-ck, many distributions have their own kernel and patches that attempt to satisfy requirements for their most common use-cases.
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===grsecurity===
 
===grsecurity===
  
grsecurity is an extensive [[security]] enhancement to the Linux kernel that defends against a wide range of security threats through intelligent access control, memory corruption-based exploit prevention, and other system hardening that generally requires no additional configuration. It has been actively developed and maintained for the past 13 years. Commercial support for grsecurity is available through Open Source Security, Inc.
+
grsecurity is an extensive [[security]] enhancement to Linux that defends against a wide range of security threats through intelligent access control, memory corruption-based exploit prevention, and other system hardening that generally requires no additional configuration. It has been actively developed and maintained for the past 13 years. Commercial support for grsecurity is available through Open Source Security, Inc.
  
 
===linux-ck===
 
===linux-ck===
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Linux-ck is a package available in the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] and in the linux-ck repo that allows users to run a kernel/headers setup patched with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset, including the Brain Fuck Scheduler (BFS). Many Archers elect to use this package for the BFS' excellent desktop interactivity and responsiveness under any load situation. Additionally, the bfs imparts performance gains beyond interactivity.
 
Linux-ck is a package available in the [https://aur.archlinux.org/ AUR] and in the linux-ck repo that allows users to run a kernel/headers setup patched with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset, including the Brain Fuck Scheduler (BFS). Many Archers elect to use this package for the BFS' excellent desktop interactivity and responsiveness under any load situation. Additionally, the bfs imparts performance gains beyond interactivity.
  
===linux-libre===
+
===GNU Linux-libre===
  
Linux-libre is a alternative kernel that is maintained from modified versions of the Linux kernel. The aim of the project is to remove from the Linux kernel any software that does not include its source code, has its source code obfuscated, or is released under proprietary licenses. While usable for most purposes, it does not include a myriad of [[firmware]] nor any binary blobs.
+
GNU Linux-libre is a patchset on mainline Linux. The aim of the project is to remove from Linux any software that does not include its source code, has its source code obfuscated, is released under proprietary licenses, or relies on separate proprietary software to function. While usable for most purposes, it does not include a myriad of [[firmware]] nor any binary blobs.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
  
*[https://kernel.org The Linux Kernel Homepage]
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*[https://kernel.org The Linux Homepage]
*[[Wikipedia:Linux_kernel |The English Wikipedia article on the Linux kernel]]
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*[[Wikipedia:Linux_kernel |The English Wikipedia article on Linux]]
*[[Wikipedia:"Tanenbaum%E2%80%93Torvalds_debate |The English Wikipedia article on the debate between Tanenbaum and Torvalds]]
+
*[[Wikipedia:Tanenbaum%E2%80%93Torvalds_debate |The English Wikipedia article on the debate between Tanenbaum and Torvalds]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:SCO%E2%80%93Linux_controversies |The English Wikipedia article on SCO Patent Disagreements with UNIX systems]]
 
*[[Wikipedia:SCO%E2%80%93Linux_controversies |The English Wikipedia article on SCO Patent Disagreements with UNIX systems]]
  
 
[[Category:GNU/Linux]]
 
[[Category:GNU/Linux]]
[[Category:Operating systems]]
+
[[Category:Kernels]]
 
[[Category:Security]]
 
[[Category:Security]]

Latest revision as of 20:25, 9 May 2022

This article is about the kernel, Linux. For the system that the kernel runs under in most cases, see GNU/Linux

Linux is a Unix-like kernel. It was created in April 1991 in University of Helsinki, Finland by Linus Torvalds. It is one of the most prominent examples of free software. It is released under GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2), with some proprietary modules.

Being a kernel, Linux sets the foundations for the operating system but lacks the actual userspace programs commonly associated with one. For convenience and historical purposes, Linux is often combined with GNU Coreutils in order to provide a fully functional system. Due to this fact, some refer to it as GNU/Linux, which is a term Richard Stallman repeatedly tries to enforce. However, non-GNU core utilities are available and do ship with a few distros.

History

While being a student in the University of Helsinki, Linus Torvalds created the kernel as a hobby. He advertised it on the Usenet group comp.os.minix shortly after the first alpha was created.

Hello everybody out there using minix -

I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and
professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones.  This has been brewing
since april, and is starting to get ready.  I'd like any feedback on
things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat
(same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons)
among other things).

I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work.
This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months, and
I'd like to know what features most people would want.  Any suggestions
are welcome, but I won't promise I'll implement them :-)

                Linus ([email protected])

PS.  Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs.
It is NOT protable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never
will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have :-(. 

Soon after, the early adopters of Linux expanded greatly.

Controversy

In 1992, with the growing popularity of Linux, creator of MINIX Andrew S. Tanenbaum started an argument with Linus Torvalds in the comp.os.minix newsgroup, claiming that when Linux was created, it was already obsolete. The debate was primarily about microkernels vs monolithic kernels. It is widely considered one of the earliest flame wars on the Internet.

In the late 1990's, RMS saw that systems that used the kernel, Linux were becoming more and more popular. However, these were, in fact, a GNU system because it utilizes the incomplete GNU OS that was planned to be completed with the Hurd kernel. Because of this, he coined the new terms for the system: GNU/Linux (Pronounced GAHNOO slash Linux), or (and lesser used) GNU+Linux (GAHNOO plus Linux). It was advised to not simply say GNU Linux because it would imply that Linux was a creation of the GNU Project.

Throughout its history (as with most other UNIX-Like systems), Linux was threatened by software patents. Many people believed that the first beta version of Linux was made from MINIX code, meaning its copyright had been violated and Linus Torvalds would have to cease and desist. While the creator of the MINIX kernel says that he believes Linux has no MINIX code, others believe that it did (or does). In addition, multiple claims were made that the use of GNU/Linux (and many other Unix-like OS's) is a violation of patents held by SCO Semiconductor Group, who inherited the original software patents for UNIX.

Alternative Kernels

Alternative kernels are variations to, or patch sets of Linux.

In addition to certain, well known patchsets such as grsecurity or linux-ck, many distributions have their own kernel and patches that attempt to satisfy requirements for their most common use-cases.

grsecurity

grsecurity is an extensive security enhancement to Linux that defends against a wide range of security threats through intelligent access control, memory corruption-based exploit prevention, and other system hardening that generally requires no additional configuration. It has been actively developed and maintained for the past 13 years. Commercial support for grsecurity is available through Open Source Security, Inc.

linux-ck

Linux-ck is a package available in the AUR and in the linux-ck repo that allows users to run a kernel/headers setup patched with Con Kolivas' ck1 patchset, including the Brain Fuck Scheduler (BFS). Many Archers elect to use this package for the BFS' excellent desktop interactivity and responsiveness under any load situation. Additionally, the bfs imparts performance gains beyond interactivity.

GNU Linux-libre

GNU Linux-libre is a patchset on mainline Linux. The aim of the project is to remove from Linux any software that does not include its source code, has its source code obfuscated, is released under proprietary licenses, or relies on separate proprietary software to function. While usable for most purposes, it does not include a myriad of firmware nor any binary blobs.

See also

External Links