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HAM Radio

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(See also: Software-Defined Radio)

Ham Radio is an old hobby that has origins as far back as the late 1800's. It was formalized as a hobby in the early 20th century. It is an over-regulated piece of shit, but what isn't now a days.

Testing In The US

Element 2 Technician 35 out of 426 questions from this pool

Frequencies 80m 40m 15m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Element 3 General 35 out of 462 questions from this pool

Frequencies 2200m 630m 160m 80m 60m 40m 30m 20m 17m
15m 12m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Element 4 Amateur Extra 50 out of 712 questions from this pool

Frequencies 2200m 630m 160m 80m 60m 40m 30m 20m 17m
15m 12m 10m 6m 2m 1.25m 70cm 33cm 23cm

Find Testing Locations In The US

Get Your FCC Registration Number

You will need either an FCC Registration or Social Security number in order to take the exam. It is not necessary to register beforehand with the FCC, but it will speed things along if you bring the paperwork.

FCC License Data Search

For a fee of $15 USD you may take one or all three tests in one sitting at no additional charge. If you fail a test, you may spend an additional $15 USD to retake it. Your license is good for 10 years with a 2 year grace period to retest after expiration. You are no longer required to know Morse code for any of these tests.

FCC Part 97 The US Amateur Rulebook

Maths You Should Know

Ohm's Law

Solve For Watts Amp2 x Ohm Volt2 / Ohm Volt x Amp
Solve For Volts Amp x Ohm √Watt x Ohm Watt / Amp
Solve For Amps Volt / Ohm Watt / Volt √Watt / Ohm
Solve For Ohms Volt2 / Watt Volt / Amp Watt / Amp2

Speed of Light Is a Constant 299,792,458 Meters Per Second

Wavelength is represented in Meters as λ

Frequency is represented in Mega Hertz as f

Speed of Light c (300MM) / Frequency f (MHz) = Wavelength λ (Meters)

This is the basic formula to find full wavelength in meters for a given frequency.

Antennas

Loop Antennas are full wavelength with one element.

c/f=λ Element Length

Dipoles are half wave with two elements.

c/f/2 = λ/2 Element Lengths

Ground Planes must be at least quarter wave with one vertical and four radial elements.

c/f/4 = λ Vertical Element Length

c/f/4 = λ Radial Element Lengths

3 Element Yagi Yagis are directional antennas consisting of a boom with reflector, driven, and director elements.

c/f = λ*.495 = Reflector Element Length

c/f = λ*.125 = Boom Separation Length

c/f = λ*.473 = Driven Element Length

c/f = λ*.125 = Boom Separation Length

c/f = λ*.440 = Director Element Length

Polarization

Ionosphere

Electrical Components

ITU Radio Bands

VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF
3 to 30 kHz 30 to 300 kHz 300 to 3 MHz 3 to 30 MHz 30 to 300 MHz 300 to 3 GHz 3 to 30 GHz

Feedline

RG6 is common and cheap, but higher resistance at 75 Ohms. You should not use this.

RG58 is cheap, 50 Ohms, and perfectly acceptable for HF.

RG8X is slightly more expensive than RG58, but lower loss.

RG213 is double the price of RG58 and RG8X, but lower attenuation at higher frequencies.

RG8U is almost identical to RG213 in price and attenuation, but has lower loss per 100ft.

LMR400 is exceptional at higher frequencies as well as low. If your software radio can do 1GHz-6GHz, this is what you get.

Transceiver Type

Q Code

A Q Code is a shorthand for Ham Radio. It was formalized in the Morse Code days.

These are the standardized, modern Q Codes recognized internationally.

Question ? Answer or Advice
QRA What is the name of your vessel (or station)? The name of my vessel (or station) is ...
QRB How far approximately are you from my station? The approximate distance between our stations is ... nautical miles (or km).
QRC By what private enterprise (or state administration) are the accounts for charges for your station settled? The accounts for charges of my station are settled by the private enterprise ... (or state administration).
QRD Where are you bound for and where are you from? I am bound for ... from ...
QRE What is your estimated time of arrival at ... (or over ...) (place)? My estimated time of arrival at ... (or over ...) (place) is ... hours.
QRF Are you returning to ... (place)? I am returning to ... (place).

or
Return to ... (place).

QRG Will you tell me my exact frequency (or that of ...)? Your exact frequency (or that of ...) is ... kHz (or MHz).
QRH Does my frequency vary? Your frequency varies.
QRI How is the tone of my transmission? The tone of your transmission is ...
1. good
2. variable
3. bad.
QRJ How many radiotelephone calls have you to book? I have ... radiotelephone calls to book.
QRK What is the intelligibility of my signals (or those of ...)? The intelligibility of your signals (or those of ...) is ...
1. bad
2. poor
3. fair
4. good
5. excellent.
QRL Are you busy? I am busy (or I am busy with ...). Please do not interfere.
QRM Are you being interfered with? [AP13]

or
Is my transmission being interfered with? [AP14]

I am being interfered with [AP13]

or
Your transmission is being interfered with ... [AP14]
(1. nil
2. slightly
3. moderately
4. severely
5. extremely).

QRN Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static
(1. nil
2. slightly
3. moderately
4. severely
5. extremely).
QRO Shall I increase transmitter power? Increase transmitter power.
QRP Shall I decrease transmitter power? Decrease transmitter power.
QRQ Shall I send faster? Send faster (... words per minute).
QRR Are you ready for automatic operation? I am ready for automatic operation. Send at ... words per minute.
QRS Shall I send more slowly? Send more slowly (... words per minute).
QRT Shall I stop sending? Stop sending.
QRU Have you anything for me? I have nothing for you.
QRV Are you ready? I am ready.
QRW Shall I inform ... that you are calling him on ... kHz (or MHz)? Please inform ... that I am calling him on ... kHz (or MHz).
QRX When will you call me again? I will call you again at ... hours (on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QRY What is my turn?
(Relates to communication).
Your turn is Number ... (or according to any other indication).
(Relates to communication).
QRZ Who is calling me? You are being called by ... (on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSA What is the strength of my signals (or those of ...)? The strength of your signals (or those of ...) is
1. scarcely perceptible
2. weak
3. fairly good
4. good
5. very good.
QSB Are my signals fading? Your signals are fading.
QSC Are you a cargo vessel? [AP13]

or
Are you a low traffic ship? [AP14]

I am a cargo vessel. [AP13]

or
I am a low traffic ship. [AP14]

QSD Is my keying defective? [AP13]

or
Are my signals mutilated? [AP14]

Your keying is defective. [AP13]

or
Your signals are mutilated. [AP14]

QSE* What is the estimated drift of the survival craft? The estimated drift of the survival craft is ... (figures and units).
QSF* Have you effected rescue? I have effected rescue and am proceeding to ... base (with ... persons injured requiring ambulance).
QSG Shall I send ... telegrams at a time? Send ... telegrams at a time.
QSH Are you able to home on your direction-finding equipment? I am able to home on my D/F equipment (on station ...).
QSI I have been unable to break in on your transmission.

or
Will you inform ... (call sign) that I have been unable to break in on his transmission (on ... kHz (or MHz)).

QSJ What is the charge to be collected to ... including your internal charge? The charge to be collected to ... including my internal charge is ... francs.
QSK Can you hear me between your signals and if so can I break in on your transmission? I can hear you between my signals; break in on my transmission.
QSL Can you acknowledge receipt? I am acknowledging receipt.
QSM Shall I repeat the last telegram which I sent you (or some previous telegram)? Repeat the last telegram which you sent me (or telegram(s) number(s) ...).
QSN Did you hear me (or ... (call sign)) on ... kHz (or MHz)? I did hear you (or ... (call sign)) on ... kHz (or MHz).
QSO Can you communicate with ... direct (or by relay)? I can communicate with ... direct (or by relay through ...).
QSP Will you relay to ... free of charge? I will relay to ... free of charge.
QSQ Have you a doctor on board (or is ... (name of person) on board)? I have a doctor on board (or ... (name of person) is on board).
QSR Shall I repeat the call on the calling frequency? Repeat your call on the calling frequency; did not hear you (or have interference).
QSS What working frequency will you use? I will use the working frequency ... kHz (or MHz) (in the HF bands normally only the last three figures of the frequency need be given).
QSU Shall I send or reply on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)) (with emissions of class ...)? Send or reply on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)) (with emissions of class ...).
QSV Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz))? Send a series of Vs on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSW Will you send on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)) (with emissions of class ...)? I am going to send on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)) (with emissions of class ...).
QSX Will you listen to ... (call sign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz)? [AP13]

or
Will you listen to ... (call sign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz), or in the bands ... / channels ... ? [AP14]

I am listening to ... (call sign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz). [AP13]

or
I am listening to ... (call sign(s)) on ... kHz (or MHz), or in the bands ... / channels ... [AP14]

QSY Shall I change to transmission on another frequency? Change to transmission on another frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSZ Shall I send each word or group more than once? Send each word or group twice (or ... times).
QTA Shall I cancel telegram (or message) number ... ? Cancel telegram (or message) number ...
QTB Do you agree with my counting of words? I do not agree with your counting of words; I will repeat the first letter or digit of each word or group.
QTC How many telegrams have you to send? I have ... telegrams for you (or for ...).
QTD* What has the rescue vessel or rescue aircraft recovered? ... (identification) has recovered ...
1. ... (number) survivors
2. wreckage
3. ... (number) bodies.
QTE What is my TRUE bearing from you?

or
What is my TRUE bearing from ... (call sign)?
or
What is the TRUE bearing of ... (call sign) from ... (call sign)?

Your TRUE bearing from me is ... degrees at ... hours.

or
Your TRUE bearing from ... (call sign) was ... degrees at ... hours.
or
The TRUE bearing of ... (call sign) from ... (call sign) was ... degrees at ... hours.

QTF Will you give me the position of my station according to the bearings taken by the direction-finding stations which you control? The position of your station according to the bearings taken by the D/F stations which I control was ... latitude, ... longitude (or other indication of position), class ... at ... hours.
QTG Will you send two dashes of ten seconds each followed by your call sign (repeated ... times) (on ... kHz (or MHz))?

or
Will you request ... to send two dashes of ten seconds followed by his call sign (repeated ... times) on ... kHz (or MHz)?

I am going to send two dashes of ten seconds each followed by my call sign (repeated ... times) (on ... kHz (or MHz)).

or
I have requested ... to send two dashes of ten seconds followed by his call sign (repeated ... times) on ... kHz (or MHz).

QTH What is your position in latitude and longitude (or according to any other indication)? My position is ... latitude, ... longitude (or according to any other indication).
QTI What is your TRUE track? [AP13] My TRUE track is ... degrees. [AP13]
QTI* What is your TRUE course? [AP14] My TRUE course is ... degrees. [AP14]
QTJ* What is your speed?

(Requests the speed of a ship or aircraft through the water or air respectively).

My speed is ... knots (or ... kilometres per hour or ... statute miles per hour).

(Indicates the speed of a ship or aircraft through the water or air respectively).

QTK* What is the speed of your aircraft in relation to the surface of the Earth? The speed of my aircraft in relation to the surface of the Earth is ... knots (or ... kilometres per hour or ... statute miles per hour).
QTL* What is your TRUE heading? My TRUE heading is ... degrees.
QTM* What is your MAGNETIC heading? My MAGNETIC heading is ... degrees.
QTN At what time did you depart from ... (place)? I departed from ... (place) at ... hours.
QTO Have you left dock (or port)?

or
Are you airborne?

I have left dock (or port).

or
I am airborne.

QTP Are you going to enter dock (or port)?

or
Are you going to alight (or land)?

I am going to enter dock (or port).

or
I am going to alight (or land).

QTQ Can you communicate with my station by means of the International Code of Signals (INTERCO)? I am going to communicate with your station by means of the International Code of Signals (INTERCO).
QTR What is the correct time? The correct time is ... hours.
QTS Will you send your call sign for tuning purposes or so that your frequency can be measured now (or at ... hours) on ... kHz (or MHz)? [AP13]

or
Will you send your call sign (and/or name) for ... seconds? [AP14]

I will send my call sign for tuning purposes or so that my frequency may be measured now (or at ... hours) on ... kHz (or MHz). [AP13]

or
I will send my call sign (and/or name) for ... seconds. [AP14]

QTT The identification signal which follows is superimposed on another transmission.
QTU What are the hours during which your station is open? My station is open from ... to ... hours.
QTV Shall I stand guard for you on the frequency of ... kHz (or MHz) (from ... to ... hours)? Stand guard for me on the frequency of ... kHz (or MHz) (from ... to ... hours).
QTW* What is the condition of survivors? Survivors are in ... condition and urgently need ...
QTX Will you keep your station open for further communication with me until further notice (or until ... hours)? I will keep my station open for further communication with you until further notice (or until ... hours).
QTY* Are you proceeding to the position of incident and if so when do you expect to arrive? I am proceeding to the position of incident and expect to arrive at ... hours (on ... (date)).
QTZ* Are you continuing the search? I am continuing the search for ... (aircraft, ship, survival craft, survivors or wreckage).
QUA Have you news of ... (call sign)? Here is news of ... (call sign).
QUB* Can you give me in the following order information concerning: the direction in degrees TRUE and speed of the surface wind; visibility; present weather; and amount, type and height of base of cloud above surface elevation at ... (place of observation)? Here is the information requested: ... (The units used for speed and distances should be indicated.)
QUC What is the number (or other indication) of the last message you received from me (or from ... (call sign))? The number (or other indication) of the last message I received from you (or from ... (call sign)) is ...
QUD Have you received the urgency signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station)? I have received the urgency signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station) at ... hours.
QUE Can you use telephony in ... (language), with interpreter if necessary; if so, on what frequencies? [AP13]

or
Can you speak in ... (language), - with interpreter if necessary; if so, on what frequencies? [AP14]

I can use telephony in ... (language) on ... kHz (or MHz). [AP13]

or
I can speak in ... (language) on ... kHz (or MHz). [AP14]

QUF Have you received the distress signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station)? I have received the distress signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station) at ... hours.
QUG Will you be forced to alight (or land)? [AP13] I am forced to alight (or land) immediately.

or
I shall be forced to alight (or land) at ... (position or place) at ... hours. [AP13]

QUH* Will you give me the present barometric pressure at sea level? The present barometric pressure at sea level is ... (units).
QUI Are your navigation lights working? [AP13] My navigation lights are working. [AP13]
QUJ Will you indicate the TRUE track to reach you (or ...)? [AP13] The TRUE track to reach me (or ...) is ... degrees at ... hours. [AP13]
QUK Can you tell me the condition of the sea observed at ... (place or coordinates)? [AP13] The sea at ... (place or coordinates) is ... [AP13]
QUL Can you tell me the swell observed at ... (place or coordinates)? [AP13] The swell at ... (place or coordinates) is ... [AP13]
QUM May I resume normal working? Normal working may be resumed.
QUN 1. When directed to all stations: [AP13,14]

Will vessels in my immediate vicinity ...
or
(in the vicinity of ... latitude, ... longitude)
or
(in the vicinity of ...) please indicate their position, TRUE course and speed?
or
2. When directed to a single station: [AP14]
please indicate their position, TRUE course and speed?

My position, TRUE course and speed are ...
QUO* Shall I search for ...
1. aircraft
2. ship
3. survival craft
in the vicinity of ... latitude, ... longitude (or according to any other indication)?
Please search for ...
1. aircraft
2. ship
3. survival craft
in the vicinity of ... latitude, ... longitude (or according to any other indication).
QUP Will you indicate your position by
1. searchlight
2. black smoke trail
3. pyrotechnic lights?
My position is indicated by
1. searchlight
2. black smoke trail
3. pyrotechnic lights.
QUQ Shall I train my searchlight nearly vertical on a cloud, occulting if possible and, if your aircraft is seen, deflect the beam up wind and on the water (or land) to facilitate your landing? Please train your searchlight on a cloud, occulting if possible and, if my aircraft is seen or heard, deflect the beam up wind and on the water (or land) to facilitate my landing. [AP13]
QUR* Have survivors ...
1. received survival equipment
2. been picked up by rescue vessel
3. been reached by ground rescue
party?
Survivors ...
1. are in possession of survival equipment dropped by ...
2. have been picked up by rescue vessel
3. have been reached by ground rescue party.
QUS* Have you sighted survivors or wreckage? If so, in what position? Have sighted ...
1. survivors in water
2. survivors on rafts
3. wreckage
in position ... latitude, ... longitude (or according to any other indication).
QUT* Is position of incident marked? Position of incident is marked by ...
1. flame or smoke float
2. sea marker
3. sea marker dye
4. ... (specify other marking).
QUU* Shall I home ship or aircraft to my position? Home ship or aircraft ... (call sign) ...
1. to your position by transmitting your call sign and long dashes on ... kHz (or MHz)
2. by transmitting on ... kHz (or MHz) TRUE track to reach you.
QUW* Are you in the search area designated as ... (designator or latitude and longitude)? I am in the ... (designation) search area.
QUX Do you have any navigational warnings or gale warnings in force? [AP14] I have the following navigational warning(s) or gale warning(s) in force: ... [AP14]
QUY* Is position of survival craft marked? Position of survival craft was marked at ... hours by ...
1. flame or smoke float
2. sea marker
3. sea marker dye
4. ... (specify other marking).
QUZ May I resume restricted working? [AP14] Distress phase still in force; restricted working may be resumed. [AP14]


These codes are specific to the Amateur Radio hobby

Template:Anchor

Code Question Answer or Statement
QLE What is your expected signal? The expected signal is low...
QNI May I join the net? You may check in...
QRA What is the name (or call sign) of your station? The name (or call sign) of my station is ...
QRG Will you tell me my exact frequency (or that of ...)? Your exact frequency (or that of ... ) is ... kHz (or MHz).
QRH Does my frequency vary? Your frequency varies.
QRI How is the tone of my transmission? The tone of your transmission is (1. Good; 2. Variable; 3. Bad)
QRJ How many voice contacts do you want to make? I want to make ... voice contacts.
QRK What is the readability of my signals (or those of ...)? The readability of your signals (or those of ...) is ... (1 to 5).
QRL Are you busy? I am busy. (or I am busy with ... ) Please do not interfere.
QRM Do you have interference? [from other stations] I have interference.
QRN Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static.
QRO Shall I increase power? Increase power.
QRP Shall I decrease power? Decrease power.
QRQ Shall I send faster? Send faster (... wpm)
QRS Shall I send more slowly? Send more slowly (... wpm)
QRT Shall I cease or suspend operation?/ shutoff the radio I am suspending operation. /shutting off the radio
QRU Have you anything for me? I have nothing for you.
QRV Are you ready? I am ready.
QRW Shall I inform ... that you are calling him on ... kHz (or MHz)? Please inform ... that I am calling him on ... kHz (or MHz).
QRX Shall I standby / When will you call me again? Please standby / I will call you again at ... (hours) on ... kHz (or MHz)
QRZ Who is calling me? You are being called by ... on ... kHz (or MHz)
QSA What is the strength of my signals (or those of ... )? The strength of your signals (or those of ...) is ... (1 to 5).
QSB Are my signals fading? Your signals are fading.
QSD Is my keying defective? Your keying is defective.
QSG Shall I send ... telegrams (messages) at a time? Send ... telegrams (messages) at a time.
QSK Can you hear me between your signals? I can hear you between my signals.
QSL Can you acknowledge receipt? I am acknowledging receipt.
QSM Shall I repeat the last telegram (message) which I sent you, or some previous telegram (message)? Repeat the last telegram (message) which you sent me (or telegram(s) (message(s)) numbers(s) ...).
QSN Did you hear me (or ... (call sign)) on .. kHz (or MHz)? I did hear you (or ... (call sign)) on ... kHz (or MHz).
QSO Can you communicate with ... direct or by relay? I can communicate with ... direct (or by relay through ...).
QSP Will you relay a message to ...? I will relay a message to ... .
QSR Do you want me to repeat my call? Please repeat your call; I did not hear you.
QSS What working frequency will you use? I will use the working frequency ... kHz (or MHz).
QST Here is a broadcast message to all amateurs.
QSU Shall I send or reply on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz))? Send or reply on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSW Will you send on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz))? I am going to send on this frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSX Will you listen to ... (call sign(s) on ... kHz (or MHz))? I am listening to ... (call sign(s) on ... kHz (or MHz))
QSY Shall I change to transmission on another frequency? Change to transmission on another frequency (or on ... kHz (or MHz)).
QSZ Shall I send each word or group more than once? Send each word or group twice (or ... times).
QTA Shall I cancel telegram (message) No. ... as if it had not been sent? Cancel telegram (message) No. ... as if it had not been sent.
QTC How many telegrams (messages) have you to send? I have ... telegrams (messages) for you (or for ...).
QTH What is your position in latitude and longitude (or according to any other indication)? My position is ... latitude...longitude
QTR What is the correct time? The correct time is ... hours
QTU At what times are you operating? I am operating from ... to ... hours.
QTX Will you keep your station open for further communication with me until further notice (or until ... hours)? I will keep my station open for further communication with you until further notice (or until ... hours).
QUA Have you news of ... (call sign)? Here is news of ... (call sign).
QUC What is the number (or other indication) of the last message you received from me (or from ... (call sign))? The number (or other indication) of the last message I received from you (or from ... (call sign)) is ...
QUD Have you received the urgency signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station)? I have received the urgency signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station) at ... hours.
QUE Can you speak in ... (language), – with interpreter if necessary; if so, on what frequencies? I can speak in ... (language) on ... kHz (or MHz).
QUF Have you received the distress signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station)? I have received the distress signal sent by ... (call sign of mobile station) at ... hours.

Notes for response to radiotelegraph Q-codes: Responses to a radiotelegraph Q-code query or a Q-code assertion may vary depending upon the code. For Q-code assertions or queries which only need to be acknowledged as received, the usual practice is to respond with the letter "R" for "Roger" which means "Received correctly". Sending an "R" merely means the code has been correctly received and does not necessarily mean that the receiving operator has taken any other action. For Q-code queries that need to be answered in the affirmative, the usual practice is to respond with the letter "C" (Sounds like the Spanish word "Si"). For Q-code queries that need to be answered in the negative, the usual practice it to respond with the letter "N" for "no". For those Q-code assertions that merely need to be acknowledged as understood, the usual practice is to respond with the prosign SN or VE which means "understood". On telegraph cable networks "KK" was often used at the end of a reply to a Q Code to mean "OK" or "Acknowledged". This practice predates amateur radio as telegraph operators in the late 19th Century are known to have used it.

Radiograms

To ease congestion on the line, the ARRL has made numbered radiograms to summarize direct messages to other users. These also are primarily used on CW transmissions. Other services, including the US Military, and the police, have their own Radiogram systems that are incompatible with this. The ARRL has other forms of radiograms, but the numbered system is the most common. An example of this in practice would be saying CALLSIGN CALL CALLSIGN2 ARRL SIXTY TWO CHRISTMAS. These are what are more commonly known as "Brevity Codes"

Codeword Expansion
Group One—For Possible Relief Emergency Use
ONE Everyone safe here. Please don't worry.
TWO Coming home as soon as possible.
THREE Am in _____ hospital. Receiving excellent care and recovering fine.
FOUR Only slight property damage here. Do not be concerned about disaster reports.
FIVE Am moving to new location. Send no further mail or communication. Will inform you of new address when relocated.
SIX Will contact you as soon as possible.
SEVEN Please reply by Amateur Radio through the amateur delivering this message. This is a free public service.
EIGHT Need additional _____ mobile or portable equipment for immediate emergency use.
NINE Additional _____ radio operators needed to assist with emergency at this location.
TEN Please contact _____. Advise to standby and provide further emergency information, instructions or assistance.
ELEVEN Establish Amateur Radio emergency communications with _____ on _____ MHz.
TWELVE Anxious to hear from you. No word in some time. Please contact me as soon as possible.
THIRTEEN Medical emergency situation exists here.
FOURTEEN Situation here becoming critical. Losses and damage from _____ increasing.
FIFTEEN Please advise your condition and what help is needed.
SIXTEEN Property damage very severe in this area.
SEVENTEEN REACT communications services also available. Establish REACT communication with _____ on channel _____.
EIGHTEEN Please contact me as soon as possible at _______.
NINETEEN Request health and welfare report on _____. (State name, address and telephone number.)
TWENTY Temporarily stranded. Will need some assistance. Please contact me at _____.
TWENTY ONE Search and Rescue assistance is needed by local authorities here. Advise availability.
TWENTY TWO Need accurate information on the extent and type of conditions now existing at your location. Please furnish this information and reply without delay.
TWENTY THREE Report at once the accessibility and best way to reach your location.
TWENTY FOUR Evacuation of residents from this area urgently needed. Advise plans for help.
TWENTY FIVE Furnish as soon as possible the weather conditions at your location.
TWENTY SIX Help and care for evacuation of sick and injured from this location needed at once.
Group Two—Routine Messages
FORTY SIX Greetings on your birthday and best wishes for many more to come.
FORTY SEVEN Reference your message number _____ to _____ delivered on _____ at _____ UTC.
FIFTY Greetings by Amateur Radio.
FIFTY ONE Greetings by Amateur Radio. This message is sent as a free public service by ham radio operators at _______. Am having a wonderful time.
FIFTY TWO Really enjoyed being with you. Looking forward to getting together again.
FIFTY THREE Received your _______. It's appreciated; many thanks.
FIFTY FOUR Many thanks for your good wishes.
FIFTY FIVE Good news is always welcome. Very delighted to hear about yours.
FIFTY SIX Congratulations on your _______, a most worthy and deserved achievement.
FIFTY SEVEN Wish we could be together
FIFTY EIGHT Have a wonderful time. Let us know when you return.
FIFTY NINE Congratulations on the new arrival. Hope mother and child are well.
SIXTY Wishing you the best of everything on _______.
SIXTY ONE Wishing you a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
SIXTY TWO Greetings and best wishes to you for a pleasant _______ holiday season.
SIXTY THREE Victory or defeat, our best wishes are with you. Hope you win.
SIXTY FOUR Arrived safely at _______.
SIXTY FIVE Arriving _______ on _______. Please arrange to meet me there.
SIXTY SIX DX QSLs are on hand for you at the _______ QSL Bureau. Send _______ self addressed envelopes.
SIXTY SEVEN Your message number _______ undeliverable because of _______. Please advise.
SIXTY EIGHT Sorry to hear you are ill. Best wishes for a speedy recovery.
SIXTY NINE Welcome to the _______. We are glad to have you with us and hope you will enjoy the fun and fellowship of the organization.

Morse Code

Chart of the Morse code 26 letters and 10 numerals.<ref name='itu-r'/>

Morse Code, also known as Continuous Wave (or CW) was once required for passing your test. It now is no longer required, but a good skill to have. Morse Code is easier to learn than you'd think. Each letter and number actually is based in the shape of the character. Learning this way is known as the Mnemonic method.

A person with satisfactory understanding has a WPM of about 30, while more advanced operators can have upwards to 90-110 WPM. Once you are an advanced user, you will no longer hear dits and das but you will hear the words as its own language.

Lightning Protection

If your antenna is outdoors, you should take precaution to prevent yourself and your gear from becoming dead. Metal antenna mounts should be grounded using 10 gauge insulated solid core copper wire. Your coax should have a lightning arrestor between the antenna and your equipment. The arrestor should be mounted near the lightning rod it's grounded to. To prevent moisture ingress, the arrestor and coax connectors should be placed in a plastic electrical box. If you have a wire dipole antenna, you should use ceramic insulators at both ends and guy rope to tie between two points.