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Central processing unit
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the "brain" of your computing device, be it a desktop, laptop, E-Readers, celphone, or tablet. You need at least one physical CPU, and it can have multiple "cores" contained on it.
Desktop and Laptop CPUs
For desktop CPUs, you have your choice of two whole brands - Intel, or AMD.
Owned by the jews, any mention of Intel on /g/ really brings the anti-semites out of the woodwork. Intel CPUs are, broadly speaking, far faster then anything AMD is capable of producing, but also carry a hefty price tag. If you plan to do CPU-intensive activities like video editing and encoding, this is probably the way to go,
MOAR CORES Broadly speaking, AMD is best know for their "bang-for-your-buck" ratio, delivering decent performance at a more moderate price. Their CPUs tend to fall into the "good enough" category for most.
AMD CPU naming
AMD CPU model names are composed by four numbers.
The first one indicates the number of cores the CPU has. The second number indicates the generation, but it is also indicative of the core type: if 1 or 2 it's generally Zambesi core, if 3 it's Piledriver core (aka Vishera). The third number is a reference of how fast the processor is. A 6350 is faster then a 6300. The fourth number is always a 0.