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Beaglebone Black is the successor of the Beaglebone, which was the 125$ single-board computer created by Beagleboard and TI. Black launched in 2013, with an upgraded processor and a micro HDMI port, priced at 45$.
Article: Single board computers
Ethernet-over-USB on Black works nearly out of the box with Windows and Linux, but getting this feature to work on a Mac with OSX 10.8+ is tricky and most people just gave up trying. If you plan on using it directly connected to a Mac, your best bet is considering running a Linux virtual machine. For more information about driver installation, see Beagleboard Getting Started.
Pins and Features
Black includes a microSD card slot, a USB port for accessory connection, a mini-USB connector which is used for communication and power, an Ethernet port, a microHDMI port and two 46 pin headers. Some of these pins are disabled by default as they are used for peripherals on the board such as the HDMI controller. By disabling the peripheral that is using the pin, you can regain it's functionality.