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tmux is a terminal multiplexer for Unix-like operating systems. It allows multiple terminal sessions to be accessed simultaneously in a single window. It is useful for running more than one command-line program at the same time. It can also be used to detach processes from their controlling terminals, allowing SSH sessions to remain active without being visible.


Session Management

tmux ls (or tmux list-sessions)
tmux new -s session-name
Ctrl-b d Detach from session
tmux attach -t [session name]
tmux kill-session -t session-name

Ctrl-b c Create new window
Ctrl-b d Detach current client
Ctrl-b l Move to previously selected window
Ctrl-b n Move to the next window
Ctrl-b p Move to the previous window
Ctrl-b & Kill the current window
Ctrl-b , Rename the current window
Ctrl-b q Show pane numbers (used to switch between panes)
Ctrl-b o Switch to the next pane
Ctrl-b ? List all keybindings

Moving between windows

Ctrl-b n (Move to the next window)
Ctrl-b p (Move to the previous window)
Ctrl-b l (Move to the previously selected window)
Ctrl-b w (List all windows / window numbers)
Ctrl-b window number (Move to the specified window number, the default bindings are from 0 -- 9)

Tiling commands

Ctrl-b % (Split the window vertically)
Ctrl-b " (Split window horizontally)
Ctrl-b o (Goto next pane)
Ctrl-b ARROW KEYS (Move in pane)
Ctrl-b q (Show pane numbers, when the numbers show up type the key to go to that pane)
Ctrl-b { (Move the current pane left)
Ctrl-b } (Move the current pane right)

Make a pane its own window

Ctrl-b : "break-pane"


Kill session:

tmux kill-session -t myname

Kill all the tmux sessions:

tmux ls | grep : | cut -d. -f1 | awk '{print substr($1, 0, length($1)-1)}' | xargs kill

In tmux, hit the prefix `ctrl+b` (my modified prefix is ctrl+a) and then:

List all shortcuts

to see all the shortcuts keys in tmux simply use the `bind-key ?` in my case that would be `CTRL-B ?`


   :new<CR>  new session
   s  list sessions
   $  name session

Windows (tabs)

   c  create window
   w  list windows
   n  next window
   p  previous window
   f  find window
   ,  name window
   &  kill window

Panes (splits)

   %  vertical split
   "  horizontal split
   o  swap panes
   q  show pane numbers
   x  kill pane
   +  break pane into window (e.g. to select text by mouse to copy)
   -  restore pane from window
   ⍽  space - toggle between layouts
   <prefix> q (Show pane numbers, when the numbers show up type the key to goto that pane)
   <prefix> { (Move the current pane left)
   <prefix> } (Move the current pane right)
   <prefix> z toggle pane zoom

Sync Panes

You can do this by switching to the appropriate window, typing your Tmux prefix (commonly Ctrl-B or Ctrl-A) and then a colon to bring up a Tmux command line, and typing:

:setw synchronize-panes

You can optionally add on or off to specify which state you want; otherwise the option is simply toggled. This option is specific to one window, so it won’t change the way your other sessions or windows operate. When you’re done, toggle it off again by repeating the command. [tip source](http://blog.sanctum.geek.nz/sync-tmux-panes/)

Resizing Panes

You can also resize panes if you don’t like the layout defaults. I personally rarely need to do this, though it’s handy to know how. Here is the basic syntax to resize panes:

   PREFIX : resize-pane -D (Resizes the current pane down)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -U (Resizes the current pane upward)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -L (Resizes the current pane left)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -R (Resizes the current pane right)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -D 20 (Resizes the current pane down by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -U 20 (Resizes the current pane upward by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -L 20 (Resizes the current pane left by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -R 20 (Resizes the current pane right by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -t 2 20 (Resizes the pane with the id of 2 down by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -t -L 20 (Resizes the pane with the id of 2 left by 20 cells)

Copy mode:

Pressing PREFIX [ places us in Copy mode. We can then use our movement keys to move our cursor around the screen. By default, the arrow keys work. we set our configuration file to use Vim keys for moving between windows and resizing panes so we wouldn’t have to take our hands off the home row. tmux has a vi mode for working with the buffer as well. To enable it, add this line to .tmux.conf:

setw -g mode-keys vi

With this option set, we can use h, j, k, and l to move around our buffer.

To get out of Copy mode, we just press the ENTER key. Moving around one character at a time isn’t very efficient. Since we enabled vi mode, we can also use some other visible shortcuts to move around the buffer.

For example, we can use "w" to jump to the next word and "b" to jump back one word. And we can use "f", followed by any character, to jump to that character on the same line, and "F" to jump backwards on the line.

      Function                vi             emacs
      Back to indentation     ^              M-m
      Clear selection         Escape         C-g
      Copy selection          Enter          M-w
      Cursor down             j              Down
      Cursor left             h              Left
      Cursor right            l              Right
      Cursor to bottom line   L
      Cursor to middle line   M              M-r
      Cursor to top line      H              M-R
      Cursor up               k              Up
      Delete entire line      d              C-u
      Delete to end of line   D              C-k
      End of line             $              C-e
      Goto line               :              g
      Half page down          C-d            M-Down
      Half page up            C-u            M-Up
      Next page               C-f            Page down
      Next word               w              M-f
      Paste buffer            p              C-y
      Previous page           C-b            Page up
      Previous word           b              M-b
      Quit mode               q              Escape
      Scroll down             C-Down or J    C-Down
      Scroll up               C-Up or K      C-Up
      Search again            n              n
      Search backward         ?              C-r
      Search forward          /              C-s
      Start of line           0              C-a
      Start selection         Space          C-Space
      Transpose chars                        C-t


   d  detach
   t  big clock
   ?  list shortcuts
   :  prompt

Configurations Options:

   # Mouse support - set to on if you want to use the mouse
   * setw -g mode-mouse off
   * set -g mouse-select-pane off
   * set -g mouse-resize-pane off
   * set -g mouse-select-window off
   # Set the default terminal mode to 256color mode
   set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"
   # enable activity alerts
   setw -g monitor-activity on
   set -g visual-activity on
   # Center the window list
   set -g status-justify centre
   # Maximize and restore a pane
   unbind Up bind Up new-window -d -n tmp \; swap-pane -s tmp.1 \; select-window -t tmp
   unbind Down
   bind Down last-window \; swap-pane -s tmp.1 \; kill-window -t tmp

External Links